Parlamento Italiano
He was elected to Parliament in 1863 - 1865 - 1867

Francesco Carrara was born on the 18th September 1805 in Lucca (Tuscany) and became one of the most important and influential jurists and politicians of the liberal age.

He was one of the first to define the emerging sector of criminal law and was a staunch opponent of the death penalty in Europe. After graduating and obtaining a doctorate from the then University of Lucca he went on to become Professor of Criminal and Commercial Law there until 1859 and was subsequently awarded the Chair in Criminal Law at the University of Pisa.

His best known work, published in ten volumes, is the ‘Programme’ delineating the curriculum for the study of Criminal Law at university. This programme was also highly influential beyond Italy and represented a synthesis of his experience during his eleven years spent in lecturing in the University of Lucca, having initially been published to assist his subsequent students in the University of Pisa.

As a young politician Carrara initially followed Giuseppe Mazzini however in the 1840’s he became associated with a group of moderate liberal thinkers. He was among a number of Lucchese liberals who did not oppose the annexation of the Duchy of Lucca into the wider region of Tuscany and after the unification of Italy he was elected senator in 1863, 1865 and 1867. Indeed Francesco Carrara saw the absorption of the Duchy of Lucca into Tuscany as a first step towards national unity. He furthermore considered the execution by giullotine in 1845 of five prisoners in Lucca, on the orders of the said Duke Carlo Ludovico of Bourbon, as reprehensible.

It is noteworthy that on the advice of Carrara and his fellow jurist Giovanni Carmignani, Granduke Leopold II subsequently abolished the death penalty in the entire territory of Tuscany upon the annexation of the Duchy of Lucca.

Francesco Carrara heavily influenced the development of the Criminal Code, eventually referred to as the Codice Zanardelli, in Italy and its enactment in 1889.

He was elected senator for the last time on the 15th of May 1876 and died on the 15th January 1888 in Lucca where to this day many of his manuscrips can still be found.


Secretariat: Tel: 039 0583495551
Schedule of criminal law. General Part. Three volumes
Schedule of criminal law. Special part. Seven volumes
Brochures criminal law. Seven volumes
Thoughts on the draft of the Italian penal code. One volume
Outlines of legislative practice. One volume
Reminiscences of the chair and the hole. One volume
Studies on the perfect law. One volume
The future of criminal science. One brochure
Francesco Carrara
Francesco Carrara
Francesco Carrara